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Computer Chess Programming

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd Edition)

20 January 2005


Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach introduces basic ideas in artificial intelligence from the perspective of building intelligent agents, which the authors define as “anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon the environment through effectors.” This textbook is up-to-date and is organized using the latest principles of good textbook design. It includes historical notes at the end of every chapter, exercises, margin notes, a bibliography, and a competent index. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach covers a wide array of material, including first-order logic, game playing, knowledge representation, planning, and reinforcement learning. Read the rest of this entry »

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Computer Chess Sourcebook

22 December 2004


Chess Software Sourcebook is thefirst book to focus exclusively on the latest chess-related computer programs. Several chapters review in detail the various types of software available, as well as the pros and cons of commercial programs in each category. Feature comparison tables help you decide which software best matches your specific needs, and screen shots show the graphical interface for each program. Playing live chess over the Internet (including its addictive tendencies!) is also discussed. Other chapters cover opening study, computer handicapping, game analysis, and time-saving tips so you can get the most out of the software you own or plan to purchase. Read the rest of this entry »

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Sigma Chess 6.1 with HIARCS 9.6 engine

22 December 2004

Sigma Chess and Hiarcs announced Sigma Chess 6.1 with HIARCS 9.6 engine for Mac OS X.

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Behind Deep Blue

20 December 2004 (Last modified: 21 December 2004)


On May 11, 1997, as millions worldwide watched a stunning victory unfold on television, a machine shocked the chess world by defeating the defending world champion, Garry Kasparov. Written by the man who started the adventure, Behind Deep Blue reveals the inside story of what happened behind the scenes at the two historic Deep Blue vs. Kasparov matches. This is also the story behind the quest to create the mother of all chess machines. The book unveils how a modest student project eventually produced a multimillion dollar supercomputer, from the development of the scientific ideas through technical setbacks, rivalry in the race to develop the ultimate chess machine, and wild controversies to the final triumph over the world’s greatest human player. Read the rest of this entry »

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Deep Blue

17 December 2004 (Last modified: 21 December 2004)


Detailed account of IBM’s Deep Blue chess program, the people who created it, and its historic battles with World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov, who challenged the AI principles of the technology with human intelligence. Read the rest of this entry »

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Chess Board Representations

10 March 1997 (Last modified: 3 December 2004)

This article discusses some alternative ways of representing a chess board with pieces in computer memory.

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Computer Chess Books

10 March 1997 (Last modified: 29 August 2005)

A list of computer chess books. Read the rest of this entry »

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Chess Tree Search

10 March 1997 (Last modified: 3 December 2004)

Tree search is one of the central algorithms of any game playing program. The term is based on looking at all possible game positions as a tree, with the legal game moves forming the branches of this tree. The leaves of the tree are all final positions, where the outcome of the game is known. The problem for most interesting games is that the size of this tree is tremendously huge, something like W^D, where W is the average number of moves per position and D is the depth of the tree, Searching the whole tree is impossible, mainly due to lack of time, even on the fastest computers. All practical search algorithms are approximations of doing such a full tree search.


These pages give an overview of traditional, fixed depth minimax search, with various refinements such as selective extensions and pruning, as used in most modern chess programs. There are other, more experimental, game tree search techniques that take a different approach, like e.g. B* and conspiracy numbers, which I hope to describe at a later time.

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Chess Program Sources

9 March 1997 (Last modified: 13 November 2008)

This section lists a number of chess programs. I have only included programs for which sources are available.

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Computer Chess Links

9 March 1997 (Last modified: 7 December 2004)

Computer chess related links. Read the rest of this entry »

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